Monday, September 16, 2019

A Comparison of Berrypicking and Sense-Making in Human Information Behavior

In today’s society, people are inundated with information from a variety of sources, including television programs, radio shows, newspaper articles and the Internet. Daily exposure to this new information provides the opportunity to further our knowledge and understanding of a subject by doing further research but what is the most effective way to go about doing so? Two different approaches based on Human Information Behavior (HIB) have been modeled which help identify individual’s information-seeking behavior and provide guidance for creating systems which make searching for information a successful proposition.The two approaches that will be examined in this paper include the â€Å"Berrypicking† model proposed by Marcia Bates and Brenda Dervin’s methodology â€Å"Sense-Making†. These two principles vary widely in their scope but are complementary as systems to aid in an information search. Berrypicking Before the late 1980’s, the universal model in information retrieval (IR) research was referred to as â€Å"one query, one use†.According to Marcia Bates, real information searching by an individual does not always conform to the â€Å"one query, one use† method that had been assumed. Bates states that with the development of more sophisticated computer systems that evolved over time, a new design based on the way that regular human beings in real-life situations perform searches for information was necessary (Bates, 2005). She presented a model of the Berrypicking search, and then proposed a variety of design features for users of online systems and other information systems.In Marcia Bates’ model of Berrypicking, information seeking behavior is modeled as an â€Å"evolving search† (Bates, 1989) whereby the search starts with one query, but is modified at various points based on the information returned by that initial query. The final result may not match the original query, because new inf ormation introduced during the search process may identify alternate paths to follow in finding the most accurate data in the least amount of results.Bates compares this process to â€Å"real life† searching in manual applications such as footnote chasing, citation searching, journal runs, etc. (Bates, 1989). She used such searches to form the basis of a system that would allow users to follow these same manual processes within electronic files. Bates provides a number of applications for Berrypicking in her article; unfortunately most are outdated due to today’s advances in technology. The process she outlined, however, is still in use for a number of applications today. One example of Berrypicking involves a typical Internet search.A user might begin the hunt for information by using a popular search engine, but the results returned often provide hyperlinks within pages which then takes the user on a different search down an alternate path. Each new click provides th e opportunity to revise the original search, ultimately leading the user to a new set of results. Bates argues that Berrypicking should not be considered browsing, because while browsing allows a user to redirect their searching, it is more random and undirected, whereas Berrypicking is an integrated part of the information seeking process.Bates (1989) also identifies Berrypicking as searching within the individual’s â€Å"Universe of Interest† (or what information they are interested in seeking) in their own â€Å"Universe of Knowledge† (which includes what they may already know to get them started on their search) but this model does not hold up to the example of a typical Internet search due to the all-inclusive nature of the world wide web. Any query online could provide results that may be outside of an initial universe of interest by exposing alternate concepts or ideas and thus enhancing the search process.The inclusion of Figure 3 (Bates, 1989 ) in this model seems to be a rather weak one; perhaps due to the fact that the Internet has evolved so much since the introduction of this model in 1989. Sense-Making Alternately, Brenda Dervin’s Sense-Making Methodology delineates the behavior an individual follows when he seeks to fill a gap in his understanding of information rather than the searching steps that occur to reach it. Sense-Making endeavors to explain how â€Å"the individual defines and attempts to bridge discontinuities or gaps† (Dervin, 1992) in information.Dervin likens this process to a person crossing a bridge. In this case, an individual attempts to fill a gap between himself and the other side. The decisions he makes as well as his responses to the situation will determine how this person actually maneuvers. Sense-Making focuses on examining the capacity of the user to impact the flow of information between systems and users. This methodology has a wide applicability because it does not attempt to model specific information-seeking behavior but rather the thought process that occurs in conjunction with it.In her article Dervin offers several examples of ways in which this approach has already been used. In one example researchers attempted to understand where a gap existed in communication from a community library and its Hispanic population. After many failed attempts to reach this population through usual publicity efforts, researchers formulated a Sense-Making methodology in the form of a questionnaire that targeted a group of users at the library and asked them the specific question, â€Å"How were you helped? † (Dervin, 1992).This question gave the researchers a better understanding of the needs of this community by delving into their thought processes: â€Å"It helped us to see patrons from a different point of view; to understand them better† (Dervin, 1992). Through an application of the Sense-Making methodology this library was able to fill the discontinuity b etween the library and its Hispanic patrons by listening to the needs of the targeted population. The challenge in using the Sense-Making approach to eradicate a gap is that the behaviors exhibited may not be understood until after the event is over.Comparison and Contrast Dervin would argue that one way to understand the fundamental differences between Berrypicking and Sense-Making is to examine the different ways that theories can be used to define them. Theory, when used to describe the Berrypicking system, would most closely match what Dervin calls theory of the first kind, or that which â€Å"results from observation† (Dervin, 2005). Theory of the second kind is defined as the broader theories that direct the observation process; they are also known as metatheories.However, Sense-Making does not fall into this category. Sense-Making is an attempt to link theories of the first kind with theories of the second kind, or what Dervin (2005) calls theory of the third kind â₠¬â€œ methodological theory. As a new methodology underlying the relationship between the theory that directs observation and the theory that results from observation, Sense-Making is highly powerful in its capacity to call into question earlier research methods and conclusions.An important aspect in studying HIB is the focus on the user, rather than the system. Each of these two approaches explains the core concepts behind user behavior and work methodologies rather than attempting to conform human behavior to fit an existing system. Both ideas are concerned with analyzing the way an increased focus on users can impact information systems and aid the unrestrained flow of information.Berrypicking is a fairly narrow model, representative of a specific type of HIB (searching) and it has limits in applicability to other types of information-seeking behavior. Sense-Making has a broader application, because the methodology is also part of a theory (theory for methodology) which can be use d to study various types of HIB. Dervin argues that users should be viewed as moving through a space-time continuum using multiple strategies and systems as they attempt to make sense of their world and address gaps in their knowledge.Tonyia Tidline (2005) notes in her dissertation Making Sense of Art as Information, â€Å"Sense-Making has great utility for shifting researchers’ focus from categorization to process, a focus that might better reflect the intricacies of information behavior†. Tidline asserts that Brenda Dervin’s ideas about information needs and the methodology of information-focused research are not effective by themselves, but become so when used in combination with other methods and theories to improve how we observe, analyze and understand information behavior (Tidline, 2005).Consequently, the Berrypicking model, when used in conjunction with the Sense-Making methodology would be complementary and allow for the achievement of better results in those designing systems for IR. Berrypicking could be used as part of Sense-Making/gap-filling process by a user, because each new evolution of the search could fill a new gap or satisfy a discontinuity in our reality. Conclusion Theories or models provide us with a way of understanding and identifying HIB.In our daily lives we have an endless number of opportunities to interact with information. Some of this behavior is obvious, but not always. At times our need for new information is only required to bridge the gap in knowledge of something we do not understand. How we attempt to obtain that understanding depends on our circumstances and resources and how well we use each. This paper examined two approaches to HIB: Marcia Bates’ model Berrypicking and Brenda Dervin's methodology Sense-Making.Both of these approaches were designed to help researchers understand and better assist users in their exploration of information, whether their need is to search across multiple types of resources or to better communicate about unfamiliar topics. As systems designers endeavor to develop products that assist users in the search for information, they will be well served to grasp a greater understanding of HIB and consequently, the principles behind Berrypicking and Sense-Making. Individuals who seek further understanding of the world and its plethora of information will profit immensely from this well-rounded approach.

Sunday, September 15, 2019

Focus Point Holdings Berhad Essay

FOCUS POINT HOLDINGS BERHAD Introduction This case analyzes the effect of Focus Point Holdings Berhad financial strategy on the firm’s operating activities and financial performance. Focus Point Holdings Berhad is an investment holding company that engages in the operation of professional eye care centers in Malaysia. The company is also involved in the trading of eyewear and eye care products; management of franchised professional eye care centers; provision of medical eye care services; provision of food and beverages services; trading of hearing aid solutions and related accessories; and retail of optical and related products. It operates 175 professional eye care centers under the Focus Point, Focus Point Optical City, Opulence, eyefont, ExcelView, Solariz, and Focus Point Signature brand names, each serving a different market segment. This Malaysian home grown optical store was established in 1989 as Focus Vision Care Center. In 1993, it became a private limited company and in 2010, a public entity. Financial Strategy  With the understanding that the fundamental success of a strategy depends on a realistic internal view of its core competencies and sustainable competitive advantages, the company translated its vision and mission statements to pursue its economic objectives. Vision: To become a leading brand in Asia through our focus approach in vision care Mission: To provide consumers with the best vision care and eyewear services as well as to uphold the highest standards in reliability, quality and profesionalism The company arrived at two major decisions, that is, to go public and to franchise the store. 1 Going Public The company’s decision to go for listing on August 23, 2010 is a financial strategy that raised RM16.07 million of which 8.94 million was channeled into expansion plans and upgrading and refurbishment of the existing eyecare centers. The company pursued the market penetration growth strategy, aimed at increasing market share for existing products or services in existing markets. The focus of growth was on expansion of new outlets, upgrading and refurbishment of existing outlets and expansion of branded eyewear products. Franchising  Franchising enabled the company to improve on its economies of scale due to its size, brand name and experience. At the same time, it provided the company with the key advantage of incremental income with minimal capital expenditure in the setting up of new outlets. Revenue contributed by the franchising model mainly comprises of sales of eyewear and eye care products to their franchises and royalty fees which are based on 5% of gross turnover of the respective franchisee’s outlets, and franchise fees payable by franchisees which amount to RM30,000 for a period of 5 years. The franchise agreements signed between the group and their franchisees are valid for a period of 5 years, with an option to renew for another five years with the same franchise fees of RM30,000 payable over the extended 5 year period. To enhance the success of this strategy, a Memorandum of Collaboration was signed between the company’s management and Permodalan Nasional Berhad to facilitate financing for Bumiputera franchisees. The company also collaborated with Maybank on a similar loan scheme for non-Bumiputera franchisees. 2 Internationalization In the same year as its initial public offering, Focus Point Holdings Berhad began to pursue its overseas expansion by opening its first franchise overseas outlet in Brunei. The company’s internationalization effort accelerated the openings of franchises in other south-east asian countries such as Singapore, Cambodia, Vietnam, Indonesia and Thailand. The first-mover advantage gave the company the edge, especially in highly-populated countries like Vietnam and Cambodia where consumer spending power was increasing in tandem with their growing economies. On the other hand, Singapore’s economy provided an opportunity for the company to venture into high-end market for professional eye-care services. Effect Of Strategy On Operating Activities By going public, the company was able to collaborate with and convince financial institutions and agencies to provide franchising loans to interested franchisees. Access to financing and the strong presence in the nation resulted in an increase in the number of outlets from the pre IPO total of 130 outlets to 136 outlets in 2011. In 2012, the group has 170 outlets in of which 85 are wholly owned outlets and 85 are franchised outlets. The company cordial relationship with local and international principals and the close working relationship with departmental stores had also allowed the group to secure good premises and maintain Focus Point’s leading position in the market. The overseas franchise business is growing with Brunei alone operating 6 franchised outlets. The money raised from IPO that is used for expansion plan and upgrading outlets has helped in efforts to foster greater customer relations. This is vital for long term business sustainability as data indicated an increasing target population. With the median age of the population increasing, it is expected that the number of population with eye disorder will also 3 increase. The global vision care market is expected to grow by 4.4% over the period of 2010 – 2017. Effect Of Strategy On Financial Performance The IPO exercise, financing facilities for franchisees and internationalization have contributed to a higher revenue and better overall financial performance as shown: 4 PBT – Profit before tax PAT – Profit after tax The above financial highlights showed that the financial performance of Focus Point Holdings Berhad is stronger after going public and taking on aggresive marketing activities to generate increased business volumes. However, the group’s venture into the food & beverage (F&B) segment in the last quarter of 2012 has affected the group’s profit, earnings and 5 dividends per share. The investment in the fast growing F&B segment is expected to enhance the group’s revenue stream and profitability in a longer term. Company’s Performance Versus Industry  The overall level of competition among operators in the professional eye care industry in Malaysia is high as there are many players competing in the industry. As in many retail businesses, there is a low barrier to entry into the operation of professional eye care centres. However, there is lack of industry peers to benchmark as there are no other competitors that are directly comparable to Focus Point Holdings Berhad. Many of the competitors are smaller outlets, independently owned and run by the owners. The nearest competitor locally is England Optical Group with similar growth strategy – store expansion, franchising and internationalization. England Optical Group operates 131 outlets, 120 in Malaysia, 10 in China and 1 in Cambodia. With reportedly 10% market share of the local optical industry, Focus Point Holdings Berhad is currently the market leader in the industry. Market share among competitors are widely dispersed with each holding a smaller percentage of the market. Conclusion A financial strategy analysis helps department heads review external and internal elements affecting a company and how such elements impact short-term and long-term activities. There are never any guarantees for business success, but creating financial strategies gives any business direction and guidance. For Focus Point Holdings Berhad, to ensure sustainability, the group increased the source of income to include food and beverage, in addition to income from eyewear and eye care and franchising. Overall the company is on the  6   right track, focusing on innovation and product development, market expansion especially in untapped regional markets and maintaining a good public image. 7 References Bender, R. , & Ward, K. (2003). Corporate financial strategy (2nd ed.). |Burlington, MA: Butterworth-Heinemann Focus Point Annual Report 2010 Focus Point Annual Report 2011 Focus Point Annual Report 2012 Irene, Y. (2010). Focus point targets local and overseas market expansion after listing, Kuala Lumpur: The Star.com.my Lee, A. (2010). Focus point braces for future challenges. Kuala Lumpur: The Star.com.my Lee, KS. (2010). Focus point plans forays into South-East Asia. Kuala Lumpur: The Star.co.my News: Focus Point to expand via franchising. (2003). Retrieved from Malaysian Franchise Association: http://www.mfa.org.my/?franchise-news:focus-point-to-expand-viafranchising:2C00C881V1

Saturday, September 14, 2019

Kant and Descartes Essay

â€Å"Idealism is the assertion there are none but thinking thing beings. All other things, which we believe are perceived in intuitions, are nothing but presentations in the thinking things, to which no object external to them in fact corresponds. Everything we see is just a construction of the mind. † (Prolegomena). Idealism maintains that there are no objects in the world, only minds. According to idealism, the existence of outer objects is uncertain and ambiguous. Idealism is the group of philosophies asserting that actuality is fundamentally mental, or otherwise intangible. Kant holds the belief that objects only exist as perceptions is fundamentally idealist. The argument begins by making the point: our senses never enable us to experience things in themselves, but only know their appearances. This idea depicts space and time as empty forums to determine how things appear. Kant discusses how math consists of synthetic a priori cognitions, or the ability to provide new information that is necessarily true, and its relation to geometry. Kant believes there is some form of pure intuition innate within us. This innate intuition is what allows us to identify different notions without reference to sense experience. In the opinion of Kant, the possibility of mathematics rests upon the possibility of â€Å"synthetic propositions a priori†. (Prolegomena). There is a priori certainty of geometry. A priori knowledge or justification is independent of all experience. A priori judgments are based upon reason alone, independently of all sensory experience, and therefore are applicable with universality. According to Kant, â€Å"Geometry is based upon the pure intuition of space. † (Prolegomena). We cannot have any perceptions of objects if not in space and time. Kant declares, â€Å"it must first exhibit its concepts in intuition, and do so a priori, in an intuition that is not empirical, but pure. † (Prolegomena). Geometry, as the innate intuition of space, derives from the sequential moments of our innate intuition of time. If space were not built into of our innate composition, two things with all of the same properties would be in every way identical. Space and time are not properties of the objects in things themselves, but rather, qualities of our knowledge of the things. Space and time are referred by Kant as the â€Å"modes of representation†, or â€Å"forms of sensibility†, of objects. (Prolegomena). Kant believes inner experience is all that we can be certain of and that the e? ects can only conclude the existence of the external world has on us. If space and time are subjective, then everything in space and time are subjective. If space and time were things in themselves that we could only understand by reference to experience, geometry and math would not have the a priori certainty that makes them reliable. If space and time do not belong to the things themselves, and we cannot know anything in space and time, then we don’t know the things in themselves. As a result of this, Kant says that appearances are â€Å"That is pure space is not at all a quality of things in themselves but a form of our sensuous faculty of representation, and that furthermore all objects in space are mere appearances†. (Prolegomena). This declaration regarding things being tangible reveals Kant’s view of transcendental idealism, faces the issue of things existing at all, directly. Immanuel Kant’s most influential contribution to philosophy is transcendental idealism. Transcendental idealism is fundamentally a doctrine about space and time. The idea is we cannot perceive things in and of themselves directly; what we perceive must first be interpreted by our senses, then by our sensibility and understanding. Though Kant has argued that we cannot perceive things in themselves, but only appearances of things, Kant believes intuition, and the senses control our perception. And anything, which we may perceive, is made up entirely of appearances. Kant argues, subsequently, things themselves in some way cause these appearances. Kant maintains that things in themselves, independent of our perception, exist, and that they are the source of what we do perceive. All other things, which we think are perceived in intuition, being nothing but representations in the thinking beings, to which no object external to them corresponds in fact. Representations of our sensibility can be said to be reflections of our mind. Kant makes this claim stating, â€Å"The understanding intuits nothing but only reflects. † (Prolegomena). This proposes the question regarding idealism, because something cannot be fully understood, does it still exist? Unlike Idealism, which generally manifests skepticism, the existence of things is crucial to Kant’s philosophy. However, Kant insists we cannot know anything about these things purely through their appearance. Kant asserts: â€Å"which is unknown to us but is not therefore less real. † (Prolegomena). Kant is claiming this ideal is contrary to idealism. Descartes decided that he could throw all things into doubt except that he was thinking and doubting. This supports the concept of idealism because it emphasizes the centrality or importance of the mind. Descartes, like Plato and Augustine divided his world into two areas. For Descartes the two areas were the cogito and the Deity. Rationalists, like Descartes, aim to escape the confines of the mind by constructing knowledge of the external world, the self, the soul, God, ethics, and science out of the simplest, indubitable ideas possessed innately by the mind. Descartes argued that knowledge came from the mind, or idealism. It was Descartes’s idealism that would force him to his separation of the mind and body. Descartes believes in the ability to deny the existence of the physical world. Kant’s major disagreement with Descartes would be in postulating an existential reality outside of the mind. An object does not depend on a mind perceiving it for it to exist though the mind does depend on the transcendental categories to perceive of those objects in a meaningful way. â€Å".. Desire this idealism of mine to be called critical. But if it be really an objectionable idealism to convert actual things into mere representations†. (Prolegomena) Kant expresses his impulse to change transcendental idealism to critical idealism at the end of this section.

Friday, September 13, 2019

Advantages and Disadvantages of Franchising

Advantages and Disadvantages of Franchising Franchising Franchising is arrangement where one party (the franchiser) grants another party (the franchisee) the right to use trade-name as well as certain business systems and processes, to produce and market good or service according to certain specification. The franchisee usually pays a one-time franchise-fee plus a percentage of sales revenueas royalty, and gains immediate name cognition, tried and tested products, standard building and decor,detailed technique in running and promoting the business, training of employees, and ongoing help in promoting and upgrading of the products. The franchiser gains rapid expansion of business and earningsat minimum capital-outlay. Feature of the franchise is that each buyer undertakes to fulfill the various conditions and requirements of the seller (franchiser), related to the production and sale of goods and the provision of related services to consumers. Thus, in the world market there are groups of companies united in a single system un der the auspices of a major international corporation. Its partners in the contract the franchisor provides advice on corporate location, selects equipment, helps in training, advice on management, and may also provide financial assistance. All this facilitates the standardization and unification of products and services of the companies included in the system of franchising provides unity on market events, style and design, the quality of goods and services sold the centralization of procurement related savings (and the additional benefit to the franchisor). Advantages of franchising mode are following (Kotler, 2002, p. 377): Rapid expansion of sales markets, the increase in sales volume and the territorial expansion of the business Absence of the cost of the vertically-integrated network management (reduction of personnel costs) A lower level of own capital investment Lift the prestige of the company and its trademark, recognition from the customers, increased confidence i n the quality and range of products a single company Income from the sale of the license and renting real estate franchise and equipment Profit from lending opportunities franchisees and reducing the time of turnover. Disadvantages of franchising mode are following (Kotler, 2002, p. 377): The likelihood of a smaller part of the profits from the franchise business than on their own Low reputation of one of the franchises in the absence of proper quality control can affect the reputation of the firm; Difficulty in controlling the reliability of financial reporting franchisee The franchisor is preparing a possible competitor in the face of franchisee company Joint ventures Joint ventures are often created for access to foreign markets, company’s decision to team up with their foreign partner, sharing ownership and control over the activities of the company. In world practice, there are many examples of well-known association of firms and corporations to tap new m arkets and gain competitive advantage. Creation of a joint venture may be the preferred method of access to foreign markets for the following reasons: 1. If the company lacks the financial, technological, managerial and other resources for self-development in foreign markets 2. If the government does not admit to its market foreign companies or subsidiaries without the participation of local capital for some political or economic reasons; 3. When the company, for economic reasons, team up with a foreign company for the joint production, the sale of which will provide the company higher profits due to the low cost of use of local resources (labor, raw materials, etc.)

THE FRENCH FOREIGN LEGION Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2750 words

THE FRENCH FOREIGN LEGION - Research Paper Example Even after 182 years of its survival, the French Foreign Legion remains a much misunderstood unit in the global military scenario. Huge non-supportive behavior of French people against the United States led alliance for war against terrorism in Iraq and also their rejection to even recognize it as a global war provides only to increase the Legion’s contemporary insignificance. Legion has mainly engaged itself in very rare attempts in the domain of peacekeeping and expansion of larger national military forces since 1962, they have established and preserved a level of preparation and capability that is more than that of other specialized military establishments. Foreign French Legion remains a vital component of nation’s military infrastructure, especially after recent reorganization. King Louis Philippe came into power after King Charles X was overthrown in the result of a rebellion. King Louis Philippe was struggling with the problem soon after climbing the throne of France. That was how to address the huge number of refugees, revolutionaries and exiles coming from the bordering countries mixed up in internal uprisings. He knew the risk these foreigners can pose to his kingdom. A solution was proposed to King Louis Philippe by a self-proclaimed lieutenant general of French Army, Jean Lacroix. Lacroix had already formed a structure of foreign volunteers with designs on utilizing them in newly conquered territory of Algeria by the French army. He suggested that his force be expanded by positive recruiting all over the country side of France with pledges of handsome salary and legal status in the country. These suggestions of Jean Lacroix were approved by the King Louis Philippe as an excellent solution that was not only addressing his refugees’ problem, bu t it would also help in reducing the strive on the regular French military combating

Thursday, September 12, 2019

Personal Statement Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Personal Statement - Assignment Example A few years ago, my dad developed Parkinsons disease. Despite the fact that I am currently pursuing my studies in chiropractic school in Los Angeles, I am the only person in my family with the ability and position to assist him and provide care. Due to the severity of my dads disease, I am forced to drive everyday from San Diego, my home town, to Los Angeles to attend classes on a daily basis. It is in this regard that I am applying for a care giver scholarship in order to learn the various element of care giving. According to a definition explicated by Mayo Clinic, Parkinsons disease is a "Progressive disorder of the nervous system that affects movement" (para.1). It is important to note that Parkinsons disease develops steadily, and having a close relative or family member with the disease elevates the risk of its development in other family members. The comprehension that development of Parkinsons disease is correlated to genetics and my role as a care giver partly influenced my decision to major in Chiropractics. This has been geared towards gaining knowledge to help my dad cope with the effects of Parkinsons disease and also to learn and understand how to reduce the risk of developing the disease owing to my elevated risks in relation to hereditary factors. In essence, chiropractic is a career path that spotlights on disorders of the musculoskeletal system, nervous system, and related consequences. As reiterated by American Chiropractic Association (para.1), chiropractic deals with cure and management of neuromuscular and cardiovascular problems such as back and neck pains. Having witnessed my father struggling with the effects of the disease particularly difficulties in walking and back pains, I believed that a chiropractic course would help gain relevant knowledge, skills, and abilities that I could apply in helping my dad cope with the effects of Parkinsons disease. This scholarship will be helpful to me in my

Wednesday, September 11, 2019

How the rapid evolution of technology and our utilization of it can Essay

How the rapid evolution of technology and our utilization of it can affect and change our identities - Essay Example While most of us believe that loss of anonymity is not good for us, some consider a loss of anonymity as a benefit to the society. The paper tries to answer this question, â€Å"Are there any possible benefits of anonymity?† Giving so much of our information on the Internet does not affect us badly as some people might think. There seem to be more benefits of being open that promoting the anonymity. It evidence from what happened to Egypt immediately before Hosni Mubarak was removed from power. Social networks such as Facebook and twitter are the most visited sites. The users give out their information on the essence that they will improve interaction with others. However, critics argue that giving out too much of our personal information is not good. Their argument is not true, Singers acknowledges that â€Å"with some social standards, the more people do something, the less risky it becomes for each individual† (463). In addition, social networks are beneficial to the society especially the under-privilege as in the case of Egyptians. Despite the view of many that we are losing our anonymity through social networks such as Facebook, the Egyptians and other Arabs benefited. They used online plat form to protest against their corrupt governments (Singer 464). As in the case of drivers, their anonymity makes them aggressive towards other people especially the other drivers. According to Vanderbilt, the consideration by drivers that they are anonymous or the anonymity of other drivers make them act roughly on the road. In addition, any mess on the road by the drivers that result to respond from other drivers result to anger â€Å"†¦we gesture violently or honk-a noise the offending driver might misinterpret† (487). The negative response from the other driver is due to the anonymity, â€Å"You can see but you can’t be heard† (Vanderbilt 488). The existence of anonymity is beneficial to drivers because they express themselves in any way. A scenario on